Duke of the Menace , did you ever meet the Duke of York?
He's is here somewhere...
On St. Crispin’s Day, October 25, 1415, a small, exhausted English army under the command of King Henry V and his brothers, the Duke of York and the Duke of Clarence, faced a much larger and more powerful French force at the village of Agincourt in northern France. The battle that ensued pitted 5,000 English and Welsh archers and 900 knights and men-at-arms under the banner that bore the cross of St. George, against nearly 30,000 French knights, men-at-arms, and crossbowmen. It ended in victory for the English. Agincourt is one of the epic battles of history, celebrated in England long before Shakespeare immortalized it in his play Henry V.
The first Creation for the Duke of Buckingham was in 1444, 28 years and 11 months after that battle.
On 14 September 1444, Humphrey Stafford, 6th Earl of Stafford, was created Duke of Buckingham. He was the son of Anne of Gloucester, "Countess of Buckingham", daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, Earl of Buckingham (later Duke of Gloucester), youngest son of King Edward III of England. Stafford was an important supporter of the House of Lancaster in the Wars of the Roses, and was killed at the Battle of Northampton in July 1460.
He was succeeded by his grandson, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, who aided Richard III in his claiming the throne in 1483 (Edward IV of England's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville having been declared null and void and Edward's sons illegitimate by Act of Parliament Titulus Regius), but who then led a revolt against Richard and was executed later that same year.
His son, Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, was restored to the title upon Henry VII's accession to the throne in 1485, but he was ultimately executed for treason in 1521 due to his opposition to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Henry VIII's chief advisor. At this time the title became extinct.
The Stafford family descended from Edmond de Stafford, who was summoned to Parliament as Lord Stafford in 1299. The second Baron was created Earl of Stafford in 1351. These titles were forfeited along with the dukedom.
The Title have been recreated later on 1623.
The Dukedom was created anew for James I's favourite, George Villiers. He was made Baron Whaddon, of Whaddon in the County of Buckingham, and Viscount Villiers in 1616, Earl of Buckingham in 1617, Marquess of Buckingham in 1618 and Earl of Coventry and Duke of Buckingham in 1623. Buckingham, who continued in office as chief minister into the reign of James's son, Charles I, was responsible for a policy of war against Spain and France, and was assassinated by a Puritan fanatic, John Felton, in 1628 as he prepared an expedition to relieve the Huguenots of La Rochelle.
His son, George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, was a notable advisor in the reign of Charles II, and, along with Lord Ashley made up the Protestant axis of the famous Cabal Ministry. He started the first foxhunt in England, The Bilsdale Hunt in 1668 and later started the Sinnington Hunt in 1680. He died from a chill after digging for a fox above Kirkbymoorside in the house of a tenant as he was too far from his home in Helmsley, North Yorkshire. At his death in 1687, the title again became extinct.
A fictionalised Buckingham is one of the characters in Alexandre Dumas, père's The Three Musketeers, which paints him as a lover of Anne of Austria and deals with his assassination by Felton. In Arturo Pérez-Reverte's novel, El capitán Alatriste, Buckingham appears briefly while on his expedition to Spain in 1623 with Charles I. He is also a central character in novels by Philippa Gregory, Earthly Joys, and Evelyn Anthony, Charles, The King. He also appears, played by Marcus Hutton, in the Doctor Who audio drama The Church and the Crown, in which he leads an aborted English invasion of France in 1626. He is a key character in the Bertrice Small novel Darling Jasmine. He also plays a part in the novel, The Arm and the Darkness by Taylor Caldwell, as the English ally sought by the Huguenots to help defend their refuge city, La Rochelle, against the siege ordered and led by Cardinal Richelieu, the minister of Louis XIII, King of France. As George Villiers, Buckingham appears as a major character in Howard Brenton's 2010 play Anne Boleyn as King James I's mate in sexual horseplay.
The Duke of Buckingham was a very controversial historical figure. Though Alexandre Dumas writes in paradoxically positive terms about him in The Three Musketeers, on the other hand, the English novelist and historian Charles Dickens makes no effort to hide his total rejection of the Duke in his book A Child’s History of England. He claims that, as King Charles the First commissioned the Duke of Buckingham (“that insolent upstart”) to bring the royal fiancée, Princess Henrietta Maria, from Paris to England, Buckingham — “with his usual audacity” — made love to the Queen of France, the Spanish Anne of Austria, thus creating an extremely serious diplomatic conflict to the advantage of Cardinal Richelieu. Later, “that pestilent Buckingham, to gratify his own wounded vanity”, engaged England in war with France, as well as with Spain.
And Dickens comments: “For such miserable causes and such miserable creatures are wars sometimes made.” Far from regretting Buckingham’s assassination, Dickens concluded that “he was destined to do little more mischief in this world”.
Duke a very big MenaceMusketeer.jpeg
"The Enigma of the World". Was the latin inscription of his tomb.
But besides I am somehow phisically seemed with him. I am very different in all other thinghs. That I can assure you.
Most of the nomad tribes are not very well seen at the eyes of sedentary societies, most for the small knoledge of each other. Western society as considered sedentarizacion as a sign of progress, in spite the greatest Empire ever was from a nomad tribe. The Mongols.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian:About this sound listen Mongol-yn Ezent Güren; Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн) was a large empire that existed during the 13th and 14th centuries. Beginning in the Central Asian steppes, it eventually stretched from Eastern Europe to the Sea of Japan, covering large parts of Siberia in the north and extending southward into Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East. It is commonly referred to as the largest contiguous empire in the history of the world. At its greatest extent it spanned 9,700 km (6,000 mi), covered an area of 24,000,000 km2 (9,300,000 sq mi), 16% of the Earth's total land area, and held sway over a population of 100 million.
The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of Mongol and Turkic tribes in the region of modern-day Mongolia under the leadership of Genghis Khan, who was proclaimed ruler of all Mongols in 1206. Initially named the Great Mongol State (Mongolian: Ikh Mongol Uls), the empire grew rapidly under his leadership and then that of his descendants, who sent invasions in every direction. The vast transcontinental empire which connected the east with the west would eventually function as a cultural "clearing house" for the Old World. Under the Mongols, new technologies, various commodities and ideologies were disseminated and exchanged across Eurasia; the exchanges ranged from cartography to printing, from agriculture to astronomy.
The empire began to split as a result of wars over succession, as the grandchildren of Genghis Khan disputed whether the royal line should follow from Genghis's son and initial heir Ögedei, or one of his other sons such as Tolui, Chagatai, or Jochi. The Toluids prevailed after a bloody purge of Ogedeid and Chagataid factions, but disputes continued even among the descendants of Tolui. Rival councils would simultaneously elect different Great Khans, such as when brothers Ariq Böke and Kublai were both elected and then not only had to defy each other, but also deal with challenges from descendants of other of Genghis's sons. Genghis's descendants would either challenge the decision of Great Khan, or assert independence in their own section of the empire.
Kublai successfully took power, but civil war ensued, as Kublai sought, unsuccessfully, to regain control of the Chagatayid and Ogedeid families. By the time of Kublai's death, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate khanates or empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives: the Golden Horde khanate in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the west, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan Dynasty based in modern-day Beijing.
It was not until the early 14th century, when the three western khanates accepted the nominal suzerainty of the Yuan Dynasty, that the Mongol world again acknowledged a single paramount suzerain for the first time since 1259 - even though the supremacy of the Yuan emperors over the western khanates was by and large symbolic. When the Yuan Dynasty was overthrown by the Han Chinese Ming Dynasty under the Hongwu Emperor in 1368, the Mongol Empire finally dissolved.
What is referred to in English as the Mongol Empire is described in the modern Mongolian language as "Mongolyn Ezent Guren" (Монголын эзэнт гүрэн, lit. Mongols' Imperial Power) and as "Ikh Mongol Uls", meaning "Great Mongol State". Genghis Khan used the latter when he was proclaimed Emperor. In the 1240s, Genghis's descendant Güyük Khan wrote a letter to Pope Innocent IV which used the preamble, "Dalai Khagan of the great Mongol state (ulus)".
After the succession war between Kublai Khan and his brother Ariq Böke which limited his real power to the east, Kublai Khan officially issued an imperial edict on December 18, 1271 to name the country "Great Yuan" (Dai Yuan, or Dai On Ulus) to establish the Yuan Dynasty, though some sources state that the full Mongolian name was "Dai Ön Yehe Monggul Ulus".
Genghis Khan innovated many ways of organizing his army, dividing it into decimal subsections of arbans (10 people), zuuns (100), myangans (1000) and tumens (10,000). The Kheshig or the Imperial Guard was founded and divided into day (khorchin, torghuds) and night guards (khevtuul). He rewarded those who had been loyal to him and placed them in high positions, placing them as heads of army units and households, even though many of his allies had been from very low-rank clans. Compared to the units he gave to his loyal companions, those assigned to his own family members were quite few. He proclaimed a new law of the empire, Ikh Zasag or Yassa, and codified everything related to the everyday life and political affairs of the nomads at the time. He forbade the selling of women, theft of other's properties, fighting between the Mongols, and the hunting of animals during the breeding season.
He appointed his adopted brother Shigi-Khuthugh supreme judge (jarughachi), ordering him to keep records of the empire. In addition to laws regarding family, food and army, Genghis also decreed religious freedom and supported domestic and international trade. He exempted the poor and the clergy from taxation. Thus, Muslims, Buddhists and Christians from Manchuria, North China, India and Persia joined Genghis Khan long before his foreign conquests. The Khan also encouraged literacy, adopting the Uyghur script which would form the Uyghur-Mongolian script of the empire, and he ordered the Uyghur Tatatunga, who had previously served the khan of Naimans, to instruct his sons.
Genghis quickly came into conflict with the Jin Dynasty of the Jurchens and the Western Xia of the Tanguts in northern China. Towards the West, under the provocation of the Muslim Khwarezmid Empire, he moved into Central Asia as well, devastating Transoxiana and the eastern Persia, then raiding into Kievan Rus' (a predecessor state of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine) and the Caucasus.
Before his death, Genghis Khan divided his empire among his sons and immediate family. But as custom made clear, the Mongol Empire remained the joint property of the entire imperial family who, along with the Mongol aristocracy, constituted the ruling class.